The world of science is a wonderful planet
Astronomers have recently discovered the hottest planet, with a surface temperature higher than that of some stars! The world of science is a wonderful planet
Scientists have been searching for planets outside the solar system for a long time and have been discovering one planet after another. This report is about some of the wonderful planets.
The hottest planet
How hot a planet can be because it is close to its central star, and how hot that star is.
In our solar system, the closest planet to the Sun is Mercury. Its distance from the sun is 56,910,000 kilometers. The first and smallest planet in the solar system has a temperature of 430 degrees Celsius, while the surface temperature of the Sun is 5,500 degrees Celsius.
But there are stars stronger than the sun.
The recently discovered Celt-9 star is 2.5 times larger than our Sun and has a surface temperature of about 10,000 degrees Celsius.
Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, the planet Celt-9b. Although scientists have not been able to measure the exact distance between them, Celt-9B is located very close to its star and it takes only 1.5 days for its entire orbit to revolve once (it takes 6 days to orbit the Sun once Mercury).
As a result, Celt-9B is recognized as the hottest planet. Located about 750 light-years from Earth, the planet has a temperature of 4328 degrees Celsius! The rocky planet Mercury will look like a lump of molten lava at this temperature.
However, Celt 9B is a gaseous planet similar to Jupiter. However, Jupiter is about three times larger than the planet, but its density is much lower. This is because the excess heat has caused it to swell like a balloon. Water and carbon dioxide cannot form on the planet because of heat. It is not possible for any molecule to exist in its atmosphere.
The coldest planet
OGLE-2005-BLG-390LB is the coldest planet. This planet, which is 5 and a half times the mass of the Earth, may also be a rocky planet.
Located near the center of the Milky Way, 3,300 light-years from Earth. Although the planet is not far from its host star (which revolves around the center of the star), its host star is a low mass and a red dwarf, i.e. a cool star.
Popular as an ice planet, the Star Wars franchise movie mentions this planet. But unlike in the real movie, the planet is not suitable for the existence of life. Because most of the planet’s gas is frozen and the planet’s surface is covered in snow.
The largest planet
If a planet could be heated like a star, what was the difference between a planet and a star?
Stars are many times larger than planets and produce light and heat through nuclear fusion reactions. For example, the burning process of the sun is carried out by the formation of helium from hydrogen in our known star Sun.
But there is a kind of star in the brown dwarf class. While such stars are large enough to initiate fusion reactions, they are not large enough to sustain them. Hydrogen reaches a stable state before fusion begins.
The mass of the planet Dennis-PJ062303.1-491201b is 27.5 times that of Jupiter. So this planet is known as the heaviest planet outside the solar system discovered by NASA.
However, due to so much mass, this planet has become controversial. Scientists are skeptical about whether it can be called a planet (a gaseous planet like Jupiter) or a brown dwarf star. More strangely, its host star itself is a dwarf star.
The smallest planet
Slightly larger than our moon and smaller than Mercury, Kepler-26b is the smallest planet ever discovered outside the solar system.
The closest planet to the Sun is Mercury. The distance between the Sun and Mercury is less than the distance between the rocky planet Kepler-26b and its star. This means that the planet is as hot as a liquid drink and has the potential to exist.
The oldest planet
The planet PSR B 1620-26 B is 12.6 billion years old, the oldest planet ever discovered. The universe is 13.6 billion years old, which is only 1.1 billion years older than the planet.
The mass of Jupiter will be two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in the solar system except Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system. And the mass of the planet ‘PSR B 1620-26 B’ is two and a half times more than that of Jupiter. It is located in the constellation Scorpio, 12,400 light-years from Earth.
The two host stars of this giant planet are orbiting each other. One is a neutron star and the other is a dwarf star. However, since the planet formed very early in the history of the universe, the planet probably did not have enough heavy elements, such as carbon and oxygen (later formed), to support life.
The youngest planet
The planet V730 Tauri B is only 2 million years old. The mass of the star around which the planet revolves is about the same as the mass of our Sun but twice the radius, meaning that the planet has not yet fully compressed into its final shape.
It is located in the constellation Taurus, 426 light-years from Earth. This giant planet is about three-quarters the mass of Jupiter and is probably still growing. This means that the planet is gaining more mass in its path through other means such as frequent collisions with asteroids. As a result, the planet has been perceived as a very unsafe place.
The worst weather planet
Since the outer planets of the solar system are far away from our earth and it is not easy to observe the weather of the planets, let us keep an eye on the planets inside our solar system as the worst weather planets.
If you look at the image of the cyclone Jupiter taken by the Juno spacecraft, this planet, the largest in our solar system, is definitely a suitable competitor for a bad weather planet.
However, the winner of the title of the worst weather planet is actually Venus. Venus, the second closest planet to the Sun, is shaped like Earth. The planet’s atmosphere is 100 times denser than Earth’s, and 95 percent of the atmosphere is carbon dioxide. The planet has an internal temperature of 482 degrees Celsius, making it hotter than Mercury. Also, Venus has sulfuric acid vapor clouds instead of water vapor condensed clouds like Earth.
The atmosphere moves faster than the rotation of the planet so the speed of the hot wind is 360 kilometers per hour. This air is hot enough to convert the solid lead into liquid.